SOVIET PHOTO FLASH development HISTORY
I will not describe all the flash issued in the USSR, and focus on a few significant models.
The name "Amateur" and "professional" photo-flash - was conditional concept. Professionals were reporters, wedding and studio photographers. They just know how to use these products more intelligently.
In the Soviet Union before its collapse was released about 200 camera models, except for prototypes, small-scale and special cameras, while their number increased to five hundred, but it is collectible cameras.
Number of models issued photo flashes is beyond counting: official data does not exist.
Chemical fixtures from the early 20th century.
Photographers prerevolutionary Russia used their system, not the flash lighting system.
Famous Russian prerevolutionary photographers - local artists Andrei Osipovich Karelin (1837-1906) and Maxim Dmitriev (1858-1948) used his original lighting system in the pavilion shooting. And have achieved considerable success. Besides ceiling light and glazed wall pavilion had another window in one wall.
By a complicated system of reflectors and mirrors with natural light. Receive pictures-pictures without distortion, with the sharpness in all plans of the image space. with great elaboration of details in highlights and shadows. In the late 1870s, photographers have not yet reached such perfection.
The scene at the window
Photo: mirror reflector (from the collection of Alexey Nikitin)
In 1887 Adolf Mythe and Johan Gedick applied mixture of magnesium with potassium chlorate. Thus was invented "flush powder» (or «blitzlicht») or «flash-powder» and was coined magnesium flash, which we consider a companion format camera. Hehr Adolf Mythe was at one time mentor of our compatriot Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, the founder of Russian color photography (and personal photographer of Emperor Nicholas ll). Therefore, the role models of machines for the outbreak were the best - from the German.
Russian magnesium flash illuminators and then were few, and now almost gone. Since the flash powder corrodes metal trays.
Before the revolution of 1917 in St. Petersburg worked subsidiaries of Agfa and Eastman Kodak - the world's largest manufacturers in Europe and photographic supplies. They were nationalized by the Soviet government. Therefore magnesium Agfa machine in Russia is easier to find. And the old Russian tradition - throw out unnecessary things ...
Episode from the Life Collector:
How is the flea market was talking to a secondhand dealer. He spoke as one old man selling produce magnesium illuminator. At least 200 rubles ($ 7). And no one bought this old photo flash, did not even understand what it is. Thought he was an old can opener.
The first models of magnesium photo -flashes were are copies of German AGFA and HAMA-phot. They were, respectively, silicon and spridernogo (Pistone) type.
Magnesium flash production Artel "Elektrometall." Spring mechanism starts wheel. It cuts out the spark of silicon. Was performed in St. Petersburg, and after the Revolution and. - In Leningrad. Originally inscription "Leningrad" on them missing.
Trigger sends a paper punch piston, flammable powder.
Russian magnesium powders "Sirius" and "Svet Molniyi" ("Factory paints Friedrich Bayer & Co."(Elberfeld) - a subsidiary of Agfa
To ignite a mixture of magnesium used special flint or a percussion cap lamps, electric lamps with battery, saltpeter paper, wadding, celluloid tube for blowing magnesium powder through a candle flame. Flash magnesium occurs during exposure.
As for other artificial light sources to flash in a certain dose of magnesium can be set by the GN
According to my sources in the provincial cities (in Tambov - in particular) photographers used cheap magnesium flash device to the 60s.
30s of the 20th century. Flash-lamp.
A very important step for the universal application of the outbreak were disposable flashbulbs (Vakublitzlampen), proposed in 1925 by an employee of Osram Dr. Paul Ferkotter. - First, they took the form of a conventional light bulb with a conventional threaded E27. In a flask was aluminum foil. Another design was a filamentary wire mesh, aluminum alloy / magnesium. These bright Blitzlampen-flash lit by electricity, had a high light energy is not isolated open fire and a burning smell ...
In 1929, the first real flash-lamp-Vacumblitz was made in Germany. It was followed in 1930 Sashalite in Britain and in the United States GE20. But in practice, the use of lamps Vacublitz were a luxury item, and only the very rich or professionals could afford them
Since the mid-1930s for the first lamps Vacublitz (flash bulb) became available outbreaks known as "bulb holder» (VACUBLITZ-LAMPENHALTER). In nickel or chrome tube placed at 4 volt battery (or 3 batteries 1.5 volts)
Soviet cameras for 30-40s used disposable flash lamp MELZ "with 25,000 lumens of light energy-seconds" It inserted disposable flashbulb "FO-1b." This set flashbulbs sold under the name of the photo-illuminator "FO-1b." (Source: AG Simonov "Photographing under floodlights ed." Art "Moscow 1959 and" Handbook of the amateur "E.A.Iofis V.G.Pelly-1961)
At the MELZ factory in Moscow was launched production of disposable tubes. Sample were taken for the device by German company Zeiss and American Graflex.
Let me remind you that the bulb holder was equipped with a Zeiss threaded element that could be screwed into the tripod socket of many cameras, but the reflector, as the American flash Graflex, they did not have..
Marketing success of new outbreaks in the late 1930s forced the manufacturers to start using flash sync on their cells. First, manufacturers use an external synchronization module for their cameras.
Soviet "addl synchronizer" 60s, which was mounted on the camera shutter button. It allows the camera to operate as a vacuum tube and electronic flashes. Removable synchronizer is used when photographing with flash lamps reusable (pulse) and disposable cameras in the central and with focal-plane shutter camera.
Soviet electronic flash
In 1935, General Electric used the license for patents in the production of Edgerton «Strobotac», flash with external power supply. Edgerton developed in 1939 a method of ignition flashbulbs of a camera shutter. Edgerton was a pioneer in the use of short flashes when shooting moving objects, and it is thanks to him now strobes present in many cells. Electronic flash has also become popular because of Edgerton.
The first commercial flash Edgerton Kodatron Flash Unit, 1941.
Stills from "The criminal case No. 306" 1956 Using the flash analog Kodatron Flash Unit
For the first Soviet flashbulbs Kodatron become an example, but not for long. Flash was an expensive and heavy (about 8 kg) and up to the 50s only used by professional photographers.
After World War II the baton intercepted German designers. Were special electronic flash Multiblitz (Dr. Ing. Mannesmann), Ultrablitz (Blaupunkt / Deutsche Elektronik), of course, Braun hobby (Max Braun, Frankfurt), Mecablitz (Metz).
In 1948 Dieter Mannesmann developed the first German discharge the flash - Elektronenblitz. Flash (Blaupunkt) Ultrablitz Reporter 1950 patent Mannesmann weighed 6.3 kg. Subsequently Metz took the basis for this model Mannesmann production flashes Multiblitz in Germany.
Flash «Braun hobby» was - the most popular electronic flash in photo enthusiasts 1950s. Nearly two decades has been saved concept Braun hobby - separation power supply and flash. Typically, this device were alkaline batteries, from which emerged from the time, the electrolyte and the same flash now "dead."
The company gave us the concept of Metz flash units, as we know it now .. In 1958, Paul Metz presented transistor voltage converter in electronic flash METZ Mecablitz 45. Product Weight decreased several times, reflector and batteries merged into a single node.
For obvious reasons, the Americans and the Japanese in those days did not constitute competition to German manufacturers. In America, there was a boom of cheap disposable lamp AG-1, (their "cloned" from the German Phillips PF-1), and the Japanese market was then mainly focused on America.
An important step in the further development of E-photo- flash s was the application of a pulsed electron-discharge lamp flash in underwater photography.
In 1954 at the Institute of Oceanology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was established automatic device by which managed to make shots at depths of up to 4,000 meters. Two years later, Professor N.L. Zenkevich constructed a device capable of taking pictures at any depth of the ocean. This system has been installed on the frame and consisted of a 35 mm camera film, a powerful flash lamp, automatic lighting control and shutter when you touch the bottom of the special cargo - guide-rope. With this setting, images were obtained at depths of 8150 m and 9960 m to the bottom of the trough Kermadok in the Pacific Ocean.
Deep-camera photo of Professor H L. Zenkevich
Manufacture of electronic flash in the USSR began massively quite late in the mid-50s.
I can not say it with 100 -% certainty. (Pro written below.) This product is produced at defense enterprises and official data were classified and the period of "perestroika" lost in the factory archives.
In the mid to late 50s in accordance with the five-year plans in several Soviet republics was launched production of electronic flash.
First Soviet electronic flashes 50s were:
1955 photo-flash type "Molniya EV-1" plant MELZ
1957 Kharkiv photo-flash "Luch-57"
1959 photo flash «Norma FIL-1" Tallinn
They did not repeat the best foreign models. "Samples" were German Flash Metz Mecablitz and Hobby Braun.
Russian engineers have taken into account the error of German engineers and Soviet E-Flash 50s was not the battery electrolyte, which flowed or dried up. On our instruments were interchangeable Dry-charged batteries "Molniya", and then - just the battery. For flash "Chaika-Inductor" no power supply required.
The Germans did all soundly and expensive. But manufacturers with their Soviet planned economy could not afford huge amounts to reduce the price of the product. Produced millions of similar flashbulbs. They were not inferior to foreign, except championship. And since the 60s Soviet cameras were synchronized only by electronic flash. Tube disposable flashbulbs in the USSR no longer existed. An exception is the cube-flash "Zelenograd", released on the eve of the Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980 there has been a lag Even then our e-filling. This was especially true of battery life flashes.
Soviet photo-flash mass produced at three plants of the USSR.
Now it's near abroad - «NORMA» Estonia Tallinn Baltics and "Elitan" Inc. " Ukraine. Kharkov factory "Radiodetal" (other names: Kharkovskiy Sovnarkhoz and OAO"Elitan") closed in 1998. Plant in the Baltic is now releasing "belts" for cars. MELZ-EVP, Moscow lamp factory in Zelenograd still works. Enterprise "MELZ" was founded in 1907 and is the oldest in Russia producing electronic devices. Currently, the main activity is the production of electron-optical converters.
First Soviet MELZ flash from the factory even had their names ("Molniya", "Zarya", "Leningrad" and "Svet"). Our engineers have generously shared their developments with their German colleagues from the GDR. As they are with us. That is why many models of the plant Elgawa former GDR structurally resemble Soviet patterns, and the Soviet model - West German.
Within the framework of the program "Integration of CMEA member countries into a single economic system" delegations from different companies GDR visited Soviet enterprises. "Vneshprodtorg" signed contracts, including the transmission of various technical documentation.
After the war-ll in the USSR worked many German "trophy" specialists. Specialists of the company "Carl Zeiss Jena" repeatedly visited the company LOMO in Leningrad and optical company named Zverev Krasnogorsk. Experts MELZ plant (Moscow electro-lamp plant) plant engineers worked with WEB.
Source: "On a mission of peace and friendship" (the magazine "Soviet Photo" 05.1960)
You can compare the appearance and specifications of a number of Soviet and flashbulbs flashbulbs from the GDR. For example: EV-1 "Lightning" from the MELZ factory and "Micky Blitz" from the factory VEB Elektronik Elgawa. Or popular in the GDR flash «SL3 / N 128» VEB ELGAWA with any of the Soviet AC 220V of flash-unit, such as "SEF-2" or "Photon")
The first Soviet electronic flash lamp
Sync type PC-sync appeared on Soviet outbreaks in the mid-50s, and the legs under the hot shoe "Hot shoe" in the second half of the 1970s.
The first Soviet electronic flash lamp "EV-1" type "Molniya" in the literature of the early 60s called simply - "flash-lamp MELZ."
Duration of the flash lamp of EV-1 is about 1/2000 sec. - 1/1000). The shortest time between flashes 5-10 sec. Lifetime fixture - 10,000 outbreaks. Flash energy - 36 J, angle light scattering - 60 °. Guide number Flash EV-1 is: when using ISO 65 film units. GOST - 20, with 130 units. GOST - 23. Weight - 3.1 kg
Power Source - 300V (dry battery type 320-PMTSG or others (eg - battery from Radio "Tourist")
The second option-220V AC with an adapter for SP - 300V (Baht "Molniya")
"EV-4" type Zarya, Power Source -220V AC (device worked without storage capacitor)
The device is not widely used, but its fan-shaped (Iris) reflector later repeatedly copied by many manufacturers lamp flashlights. He is "softened" by the harsh light of the flash lamp and get a beautiful diffused light portrait.
Includes four elements.
Logo "И" (I)- pulse (total for all lamps) a letter indicating purpose lamps: «Ф» (F) – foto-light (single flash), «C» (S) - stroboscopic; letter indicating the design: P - straight, «К» (C) - compact (with coiled tubing), «T» (P) - point, (Ш ) W - ball, number denoting the maximum permissible mode with the optimal operating voltage at which guaranteed a certain lifespan. For Flash- lamps this number corresponds to the energy of a single flash strobe for - the power dissipated in the lamp. Additional figures included in the designation of certain lamps, indicate the number of constructive options.
"EV-5" type "Leningrad", 1962, Moscow electric lamp company (MELZ) This device was interchangeable lens for use with a wide angle lens. SP-two batteries KBSL-0, 5 (from a flashlight battery);
First Soviet flash from the end of the '50s before the '70s were produced at different factories of various departments, but one concept.
Actually flash lamp with a reflector was attached to the camera via a connecting bar. Power supply and capacitor were independent element and reflector connected cable. Sync joins it with the camera flash. In Nest "hot shoe" (zuher-plank or viewfinder) flash is not inserted.
This applies to the first model "EV" - devices "Molniya" and "Zaria", released by the MELZ and subsequent outbreaks of "Luch-57" and "Luch-59" ("Kharkov"), FIL-1 "(" Norma ", Tallinn). essentially, they did not differ based on the flash and" EV-1 "type Molniya., 1964 With flash "Luch" began to produce under the brand name "Chaika"
Devices "Luch" and "The "Chaika"various modifications have been a long time and our most powerful flares. They are popular with wedding photographers and reporters. Several changed since the time of their appearance, round reflector changed to rectangular, sometimes double, but the essence remains the same.
In fact flash "Chaika"- the same "Luch", "with only one illuminator. And with the possibility of supply as 220V or batteries.
Rated E. energy - 36 J, the duration of the light flash - 1/2000 sec, the angle of light leakage - 45 °, powered by 2 square batteries or an AC voltage of 220 V; number of flashes from one set - at least 40. emission spectrum of the flash close to daylight. The illuminator has a foot end of the handle for attachment to the camera or tripod skid plate. Power supply is placed in a leather case. In free space when carrying case fits the illuminator, and cords. Weight of the device with a set of batteries - 1.6 kg. Various issues were different form the case and the reflector surface.
Steep trading trick-flash "Chaika-inductor." (Kharkov) The product is unlike conventional photo-flashes. It does not use the battery at 300 V.
"Chaika-inductor.". Guide number 24 for ISO 64; up time 10 sec; a radiation angle of 45 degrees
Year: 1958-1963. Released a small party to equip photographers KGB Chief Directorate homicide USSR, also got a little geologists, zoologists and polar explorers. Specially designed to operate in the field and remote places. Flash works on AC 220 and 127 V, and also the built-in inductor, like a field telephones. Inductor capacitor feeds directly: twisted handle, lighted lamp, you can take pictures. A marvel of engineering, on the verge of fantasy!
Guide number 24 for ISO 64 ; up time 10 sec; a radiation angle of 45 degrees
The Soviet leadership decided that it was what the people of expensive electronic devices for flash, self-contained, compact, and with automatic tilting reflector. Mainly produced expensive to works on AC 220. Sometimes with a separate battery pack.
In the USSR Trade issued the following products:
Photo-flash type "EV" series "Molniya", "Zarya", "Leningrad" and "Svet" from the mid 50s to mid 60s produced Moscow (MELZ)
Flashlights family "Photon" and "Electronika" from the early 80's to mid 90's NPO released a "Zenith" in the factory MELZ (Zelenograd).
Photo-flash type "Peleng" and "Ogonyok" in Minsk released a white with mid 80s (Bel-OMO "Zenit). There was also released Camera "Elikon-35C", the first Soviet camera with built-in flash.
Photo-flash type "FIL" released in 1957 at the "Norma" in Tallinn,
Photo-flash type "Saulute" Available in 70-80s association "Sigma" (Vilnius calculators plant).
Photo-flash type "Lush," from 1957 and the type of "Chaika" in 1964, "Kristall" (1970), " Lush -M1" in 1981, "Electronika L5-01" in 1981 and "Photon "in 1981 are produced at the plant "Radiodetal" ( "Elitan" inc.) in Kharkiv
At "Polaron" (Ukraine, Lviv) in the late 80s and early 90s were produced automatic flash "Electron"
Flash type "SEF" with the mid-80s has been producing Arzamas factory of electronic components. Now: JSC "Ricor Electronics", Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod region,
And Disposable Camera Flash "Cube", in early 1980, Zelenograd as a response to the popular "cubes" Kodak's late 60s.
Adaptations for photo-flash of the USSR:
Swivel head for photo flashes GLW "Zenit"
Grip for flash KMZ
Sometimes confused with the name of "Danko" on the flash and the markings on the back of the product. Believe marking on the back ... The name "Danko" would return all Soviet-type outbreaks of Nikon-Spedllight or Canon Speedlite . But did not take the new marking. The reason is simple we had no system cameras to the system flashes. In the USSR, the system flashes for "Zenith", "Zorkiy", "FED" and "Kiev" was not. "System" means by a flash control from the camera, for example, TTL-control, and hence - the presence of additional (low voltage) contacts to match the flash. Almost all cameras released in the Soviet Union were purely mechanical, and flash - single ended. Cameras were produced in factories one ministry, flash - the factories of other departments.
Until TTL flash control from the camera, which the company introduced in Olympus mid-70s, our industry has not held. But automatic flash with built-in sensor still produced in the late 80s.
At "Polaron" in the late 80's and early 90's produced automatic flash "Electronika" FE-16A "(1976-1990). But “Perestroika” made them rare and collectible.
The first Soviet autonomous flash "Chaika-inductor” 1959
The first Soviet automatic flash "Electronika" FE-16A " 1976
The first Soviet flash with a tilting reflector «Saulute-2"
The first Soviet rechargeable flash "Electron"
The first Soviet camera with integrated flash "Elikon-35C"
On the cameras' Elikon "was first applied in the USSR built flash.
Elikon-AF - the first Soviet small-format camera with auto focus from the family of unified camera with built-in flash units (BelOMO). Served as a model for the construction of the Japanese camera Konica C35 AF, unreleased since 1977. This family includes cameras barchart "Elikon-3", "4-Elikon", "Elikon-35C".
Photo Flash - clones and prototypes
Little about flash lamps for underwater photography.
In 1960 he released the first Soviet underwater housing UKP (universal underwater camera). Pulse illuminator for this box was designed, but production he went.
German Underwater Case for photo flash PK 220
Photo flash on the Soviet submarine boxes are not manufactured in the USSR, but they were made in the GDR, the factory VEB Elgawa. LOMO experts was assigned to the corresponding documentation. This was mentioned in his memoirs, former German pensioners engineers WEB
For popular in the USSR and abroad camera "LOMO Compact" in the 80s produced cheap underwater housing "Crab". Underwater Case for the usual photo-flash handmade.
Made and very complex lighting. For example servoblitts underwater. In the 1980s. device of similar design "Blick" was made Xarkov specialists. As power electronic circuit used battery "Molniya"
In 1988 was developed domestic underwater camera - "Akvakon." The device was a mechanism of "LOMO-compact." "For him was developed and the flash. Was developed in 1990 modernized" Akvakon-2 "with built-in flash. Designer - Massarsky. Preserved only prototypes that became a rarity for collectors of photography.
Photo-camera "Smena-20" was announced at Photokina in 1990. Specially developed for her photo-flash " Smena -10b." For flash synchronization is provided "hot shoe". Has small dimensions and weight. Made at the Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Association. (LOMO) presumably from the late 1980s until the mid-1990s
External Power Supply for Soviet photo-flashes.
What Soviet flashes were powered by a battery or a storage battery?
There are few models of Soviet flares on batteries, for example, PHIL-3, 5-PHIL, PHIL-7, 8-PHIL, PHIL 10, PHIL-11M, "Chaika", "Electron" (storage battery), "Electronika B5 -08 "(with charger). But all their characteristics are not better than the built-in flash modern digital camera, and the last two - even worse!
Most amateur photographers prefer self-powered flash units. Such pulsed lamps serial production receive a charge from the battery "Molniya" or low voltage converter elements in dry high.
More mid-50s for powerful flares used battery is "Molniya" at 300V with adapter 220 volts. But "Molniya " was rarely on sale and stored for long. Batteries do not save enough - barely enough for a set of two narrow photo shoot films. Cost 11 rubles 40 kopecks
Feature of Soviet network flashbulbs became available transverters (converter). Converter is self-powered flashlights in the absence of mains or for more convenient work with the flash. He used a standard size batteries, allowing the outbreak to operate independently from the network. This converter transformed voltage from several batteries in the mains voltage 220V~.
In the Soviet Union issued the following converter.
«ИПВ – 1», Источникпитанияфотовспышки
"IPV - 1" Powersupplyflash
Designed to supply the network type electronic flash "SEF-2", "SEF-3." The power source is a flat square 3336L battery. dimensions, mm - 110h46h96. Manufactured by unknown
«БПФ-1», Блок питания сетевых фотовспышек.
"BPF-1" power supply AC 200v E-flash
Power supply AC 200v of Soviet outbreaks. Powered by a flat square batteries, enough batteries for about 60-70 frames. Manufacturer: Pilot Plant "Matas" in Vilnius
«БПФ-2», Блок питания сетевых фотовспышек.
"BPF-2" power supply AC 200v E-flash
Power Source "BPF-2" is designed for autonomous power supply AC 200v with a nominal energy of flashbulbs 36Dzh. Supply shoulder strap. Powered by a 6-element type "373", "Mars", enough batteries for approximately 150 frames. Dimensions - 120h76h116mm. Weight - 1.1 kg Manufacturer: Pilot Plant "Matas" in Vilnius 90th
ABP" Independent power supply
Autonomous power supply for the AC 200v flash (PHIL-16).
Operates on 4 batteries type D (the biggest round battery 1.5 V), enough batteries for approximately 150 frames. Dimensions 148h40h108 mm. Manufacturer: ON "Norma" in Tallinn. 90th.
"ПН-70" - Преобразователь напряжения
"PN-70" - Voltageconverter
Voltage converter "PN-70" is designed to supply electronic flash (such as "Photon") running from AC power. Powered by two batteries 3R12 or 3336L for 4.5 volts. Manufacturer: unknown.
«ПНМ-1», Преобразователь напряжения для фотовспышки «ЛУЧ». Voltage converter for flash "Luch."
Voltage converter for flash "Luch."Replaces battery "Molniya". Also serves food to the attached flashlight.
Staffed with two chargers: 220Volt AC power. and 12volt car charger.
Amateur Soviet flash 70-90s named "SEF-2," "Photon", "Saulute" and "PHIL"
Last photo-flash from the Soviet Union differed little from foreign. They were simple, reliable and cheap. They now reliably serve their masters. But now we are shooting on film less and less.
Powerful "hammer-type" Soviet flash "PHIL" and "Luch"
Last produced in the USSR flash type "Electronika"
Feature on Soviet photo-flash
127, 220 - powered by AC 127 or 220V
300 - powered by a DC voltage 300V
330М - powered by batteries 330- ЭВМЦГ
А - rechargeable Battery
Зу - Charger
Б - Low-voltage battery
Вб - vibrator voltage
Пт - transistor voltage converter
БП - Power Supply
О - Illuminator
Э - low voltage element type 373
G N ISO 65
Luch-59 100, 60, 40 31 45 300
Luch -61 100, 60, 40 31 45 220, 300
Luch -63 100, 60, 40 31 45 220, 300
Luch -70 100, 50 31 45 220, 300
Luch -М 104, 68, 36 40, 32 50 220, 300
Saulute 36 16 60 220
Saulute -II 36 18 50 А, 4Б, 220
SEF-2 23 12 60 220
SEF -3 36 17 60 220, 300
SEF -3М 36 12 60 220
ФИЛ-1 72 28 60 4Б, Вб
PHIL-2 36 20 60 220, 4Б, Вб
PHIL -3 36 20 60 220, 4Б, Пт
PHIL -4 36 20 60 А, Вб, Зу
PHIL -5 58 25 60 4Б, Пт
PHIL -6 36 20 60 220, 300
PHIL -7 58-29 25-18 60 220
PHIL -8 18 15 45 220, 300, 2Б, Пт
PHIL -9 30-45 18-22 60 220
PHIL -10 36 22 60 220, 4Э, Пт
PHIL -11 36 24 80 220, 300, Пт
PHIL -11М 36 16 80 220, 300, Пт
PHIL -12 36 24 50 220, 300, Пт
PHIL -16 36 16 50 220, 4Э
PHIL -41М 36 24 80 220, 300
PHIL -42 36 24 50 220, 300
PHIL -46 36 16 50 220, 300
PHIL -100 104 28-40 85-30 220, 300
PHIL -101 68 18-28 85-30 220, 300
PHIL -102 68 18-28 85-30 220, 300
PHIL -105 68 30 50 220, 330М
PHIL -106 68 30 50 220, 330М
PHIL -107 68 30 50 220, 330М
Chaika 36 22 50 220, 2Б
Electronika B5-04 68 35 60 220, 340М
Electronika B5-08 12 12 - 127, 220, Пт
Electronika L5-01 20,28,40 10,14, 20 50 220, Пт
Electronika B5-11 16 12 72 220, 4Б
Electronika B5-11BP 16 12 72 4Б
Electronika B5-21 36 20 45 220, 300
Electronika B5-22 36 18 50 220
Electronika B5-24 36 22 55 220, А
Electronika FE-14AU 86 20 70 220, 330М
Electronika FE-15U 21 14 60 127, 220, А
Electronika FE-25 40 18 50 220, А
Electronika FE-26 12 8 50 2Б
Electronika 12 12 60 2Б
The minimum interval between flashes, s
Luch -59 1/500 20 - - set of 2 photo-flashes
Luch -61 1/500 20 - - set of 2 photo-flashes
Luch -63 1/500 10 210х255х155 3,5 -
Luch -70 1/500 20 210х255х155 3,5 -
Luch -М 1/100 20 227х137х115 0,9 Light synchronizer
Saulute 1/1000 10 51х85х75 0,3 Electrocontact
Saulute -II 1/1000 20 71х57х179 0,4 storage
SEF -2 1/1000 20 45х65х142 0,45 -
SEF -3 1/1000 20 47х85х106 0,35 Electrocontact
SEF -3М 1/1000 20 46х63х101 0,3 -
PHIL -1 1/400 20 220х170х70 2,4 -
PHIL -2 1/500 10 220х170х57 1,9 -
PHIL -3 1/400 10 185х140х160 0,9 -
PHIL -4 1/400 10 220х170х57 2,2 -
PHIL -5 1/200 20 190х420х70 1,7 Set of 2 photo flashes
PHIL -6 1/400 10 196х200х77 1,8 -
PHIL -7 1/400 20 170х170х68 1,3 -
PHIL -8 1/500 10 130х84х38 0,6 -
PHIL -9 1/100-1/150 10 100х155х45 0,25 W\t the strg capacitor
PHIL -10 1/400 10 - 0,9 -
PHIL -11 1/400 10 (PS-18) - 0,3 -
PHIL -11М 1/400 10 (PS-18) 85х48х78(О) Two blocks:
40х48х108(PS) 0,24 the illuminator and
PHIL -12 1/400 10 (PS -18) 0,3 -
PHIL -16 1/400 20 85х46х101 0,32 Synchro-wire
PHIL -41М 1/400 10 85х48х108 0,3 unknown
PHIL -42 1/400 10 85х48х78 0,3 unknown
PHIL -46 1/400 20 85х46х101 0,32 2 photo-flashes
PHIL -100 1/400 10 223х105х86 0,71 Light synchronizer
PHIL -101 1/500 10 223х105х86 0,64 2 photo-flashes,
PHIL -102 1/500 10 223х105х86 1,28 unknown
PHIL -105 1/500 10 84х82х214 0,61 Light synchronizer
PHIL -106 1/500 10 84х82х214 0,62 2 photo-flashes,
PHIL -107 1/500 10 84х82х214 1,24 unknown
Chaika unknown 20 210х165х85 1,6 unknown
Electronika B5-04 unknown 10 78х84х195 0,5 unknown
Electronika B5-08 1/2000 20 37х62х13 0,31 unknown
Electronika L5-01 1/2500 unknown 126х85х50 0,55 unknown
Electronika B5-11 unknown 10 (batt.) 113х62х36 unknown unknown
Electronika B5-11BP unknown 30 113х62х36 0,2 Electrocontact
Electronika B5-21 1/1000 15 35х80х91 0,315 unknown
Electronika B5-22 unknown 60 102х39х90 0,385 unknown
Electronika B5-24 unknown 15 85х55х137 0,47 unknown
Electronika FE -14AU unknown 60 198х89х80 0,7 unknown
Electronika FE -15U unknown 10 102х58х35 0,21 unknown
Electronika FE-25 unknown 20 205х75х91 0,5 storage
Electronika FE -26 unknown 15 60х60х34 0,1 unknown
Electronika unknown 15 60х60х34 0,1 unknown